| 14,306 Psychic Readings
| 49,135 Pages of Psychic Material
| March 18, 1877
| January 03, 1945
| Hopkinsville, Kentucky
| Virginia Beach, Virginia
"It seems they destroy people by granting their dearest wishes, as has been the way of the devil, since God created the world."
| Charles Halloway  | Something Wicked This Way Comes
An Edgar Casē Study / Prophecies
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  1. Black Tuesday
02/26/1925

10. One that within the present sphere will have great amount of monies to care for. In the adverse forces that will come then in 1929, care should be taken lest this, without the more discretion in small things, be taken from the entity. (2723-1)

03/06/1929

7. (Q) Will this decline turn into what we in Wall Street know as a real bear market?
(A) Much too much mixed for a real bear market, see? for there has been in recent months a much greater tendency for larger combines than there has probably EVER been before. This will prevent that as would ordinarily, or has been termed bear market. This well indicated to the body [137] in how that the body chased the bull [137-115], or defended the friend AND the self against this animal - that represents the bull market, see? The red indicating the danger in the bull market, yet - as seen - there will still be the continued attempt to KEEP the market a bull market - hence we will have a mixture, but gradually sliding off, as seen at the present, with variations - though this - though THIS whole condition may change. Forget not there is still hanging over the situation that as has been given in the early portion of December [900-417] concerning the combination of radio, Western Union, Tel & Tel, and Westinghouse. These were given as to how the changes and how breaks. At the same time there was given that there was a division in the money conditions and positions. That fight has hardly begun. When this is an issue we may expect a CONSIDERABLE break and bear market [see: a market characterized by falling prices], see? This issue being between those of the reserves of nations and of INDIVIDUALS, and will cause - unless another of the more STABLE banking conditions come to the relief - a great disturbance in financial circles. This warning has been given, see? Mind these are all in the position of being an influence in market conditions, and may turn EITHER way, as the conditions come. Now much may, will be received by these individuals concerning this condition; "for have I not promised thee, [900], that when troubles arises I will be at that Board? Heed, then, when command is given - for some squally times may be expected - but sit steady. I will guide the craft."

Gary just gave, as is seen, to the individuals that as is apparent in the face of the general reports of CONTINUED prosperity, yet there are troublesome conditions - April, May, June - may see many of these. (900-425)


    1. "PANIC RAGES IN MARKET," Los Angeles Times, October 24, 1929.

    1. "STOCKS DIVE AMID FRENZY IN 16,410,000-SHARE DAY," Los Angeles Times, October 30, 1929.




  1. Age of the Great Pyramid/Sphinx
07/08/1925

19. Before that we find the entity was in the rule when the king in the Egyptian forces gave the greater knowledge of the indwelling of the divine in the then human forces in earth plane. The entity then was in the name of Arsrha and was the stone and the precious stone designer and carver for that entity, the ruler, Araaraart. [Ra-Ta period] The entity also gave the geometrical forces to the people, being then the mathematician, and an assistant to the astrologer and soothsayer of the day. He arranged then for the first monuments that were being restored and builded in those places, being then the founder of now that mystery of mysteries, the Sphinx. (195-14)

07/01/1932

7. (Q) What was the date of the actual beginning and ending of the construction of the Great Pyramid?
(A) Was one hundred years in construction. Begun and completed in the period of Araaraart's time, with Hermes and Ra.

8. (Q) What was the date B.C. of that period?
(A) 10,490 to 10,390 before the Prince entered into Egypt. (5748-6)


    1. Lee Dye, "Sphinx's New Riddle--Is It Older Than Experts Say? : Archeology: Geologists cite study of weathering patterns. But Egyptologists say findings can't be right," Los Angeles Times, October 23, 1991.
Sphinx's New Riddle--Is It Older Than Experts Say? :
Archeology: Geologists cite study of weathering patterns. But Egyptologists say findings can't be right.

SAN DIEGO — New evidence that Egypt's Great Sphinx may be twice as old as had been thought has triggered a fierce argument between geologists who say it must be older and archeologists who say such a conclusion contradicts everything they know about ancient Egypt.

Geologists who presented their results at the Geological Society of America convention here Tuesday said that weathering patterns on the monument are characteristic of a period far older than had been believed. But archeologists and Egyptologists insist that even if the Sphinx is older than they think, it couldn't be much older because the people who lived in that region earlier could not have built it.

Most Egyptologists believe the Sphinx was built during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafre, also known as Chephren, about 2500 BC. But scientists who conducted a series of unprecedented studies at the Giza site told their colleagues that their evidence shows the Sphinx was there long before Khafre came to power. The evidence suggests that Khafre simply refurbished the Sphinx, which may have been several thousand years old, and incorporated it into his funereal complex.

Geologist Robert M. Schoch of Boston University told the meeting that his research suggests the Sphinx actually dates between 5000 and 7000 BC.

"And I'm trying to be conservative," he said in an interview. That would double the age of the Great Sphinx and make it the oldest monument in Egypt, he said.

But archeologist Carol Redmount of UC Berkeley, who specializes in Egyptian artifacts, said, "There's just no way that could be true." The people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or even the will to build such a structure thousands of years before Khafre's reign, she said.

Other Egyptologists who have looked at Schoch's work said they cannot explain the geological evidence, but they insist that the idea that the Sphinx is thousands of years older than they had thought does not match with the mountains of archeological research they have carried out in the region.

If the geologists are right, much of what the Egyptologists think they know would have to be wrong.

Schoch conducted the first seismic studies ever allowed at the site, and the research indicates that the limestone bed that surrounds the monument, part of which was exposed when the Sphinx was first carved, has weathered far longer than had been thought. In addition, erosional differences between the Sphinx and other structures of unambiguous origin also indicate the Sphinx is much older, Schoch said.

Joining him in the research were Thomas L. Dobecki, a Houston geophysicist, and Egyptologist John Anthony West of New York.

Schoch said Egyptologists believe Khafre built the Sphinx because it is part of the tomb complex that he had built for himself. Some believe the face of the Sphinx also resembles Khafre, but Schoch said he believes Khafre had the face refurbished when he incorporated the existing structure into his tomb.

The Sphinx is actually carved into the limestone bedrock, so it sits inside a ditch. The walls of the ditch offered Schoch his first tantalizing evidence. They are heavily weathered by water, suggesting that the ditch was dug before 3000 BC, when rainfall in the area was much higher than it has been in the last few thousand years.

He said another nearby structure, known to have been carved into a hillside during Khafre's era, does not show weathering that would be produced by water.

That indicates that the ditch around the Sphinx was carved out thousands of years earlier, he said.

Schoch also carried out seismic studies that reveal how sound waves travel through rock. Weathering creates pores in rocks, and the speed at which the waves travel can tell scientists about the porosity of the rock, and thus how much it has weathered. That, in turn, tells them how long it has been exposed to the elements.

The porosity of the rock on the floor of the ditch in front of the Sphinx has increased due to weathering to a depth of eight feet, he said. The same is true for the ditch on both sides of the monument.

But behind the Sphinx, where the ditch narrows to a small passage, the weathering only goes down to about four feet.

Schoch believes the "rump" of the Sphinx was carved out of the bedrock during Khafre's reign as part of his refurbishment, and thus is only about half the age of the ditch in front and on both sides of the monument.

If so, that would mean the head of the Sphinx had been there for thousands of years when Khafre came along.


But that conclusion flies in the face of "everything we know about ancient Egypt," said Berkeley's Redmount.

The Sphinx was created with technology that was far more advanced than other structures that are of known date, she said, and could not have preceded them by thousands of years.

In addition, "the rise of a complex society" that would have made such an undertaking possible did not begin until around 3200 BC, she said.

Only then did the area now known as Giza become important, so there would have been no reason to build such a monument in that area prior to that time, she added.

But Schoch believes the geological evidence shows the Sphinx may be as much as 9000 years old.

So the riddle continues.


    1. Bill Cote, "The Mystery Of The Sphinx," 1:33:26, November 10 1993.



  1. El Niño-Southern Oscillation
05/28/1926

6. (Q) Is Herbert Janvrin Browne's theory correct - whereby weather is forecasted several years in advance by measuring solar radiation and its action on the ocean currents?
(A) Were these varied accounts considered of that information intimated here, these would be NOT correct. For this may be established as a theory: That thrown off will be returned. As the heat or cold in the various parts of the earth is radiated off, and correlated with reflection in the earth's atmosphere, this in its action changes the currents or streams in the ocean; and the waters bring or carry the heat in a manner to the various shores, or bring cold or carry cold to the various shores. (195-29)


    1. "What are El Niño and La Niña?," National Ocean Service, September 04, 2014.
What are El Niño and La Niña?

El Niño and La Niña are complex weather patterns resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific. [see: described by Jacob Bjerknes in 19691]

El Niño and La Niña are opposite phases of what is known as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. The ENSO cycle is a scientific term that describes the fluctuations in temperature between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific (approximately between the International Date Line and 120 degrees West).

La Niña is sometimes referred to as the cold phase of ENSO and El Niño as the warm phase of ENSO. These deviations from normal surface temperatures can have large-scale impacts not only on ocean processes, but also on global weather and climate.

El Niño and La Niña episodes typically last nine to 12 months, but some prolonged events may last for years. They often begin to form between June and August, reach peak strength between December and April, and then decay between May and July of the following year. While their periodicity can be quite irregular, El Niño and La Niña events occur about every three to five years. Typically, El Niño occurs more frequently than La Niña.

El Niño

El Niño means The Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish. El Niño was originally recognized by fishermen off the coast of South America in the 1600s, with the appearance of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean. The name was chosen based on the time of year (around December) during which these warm waters events tended to occur.

The term El Niño refers to the large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate interaction linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific.

Typical El Niño effects are likely to develop over North America during the upcoming winter season. Those include warmer-than-average temperatures over western and central Canada, and over the western and northern United States. Wetter-than-average conditions are likely over portions of the U.S. Gulf Coast and Florida, while drier-than-average conditions can be expected in the Ohio Valley and the Pacific Northwest.

La Niña

La Niña means The Little Girl in Spanish. La Niña is also sometimes called El Viejo, anti-El Niño, or simply "a cold event."

La Niña episodes represent periods of below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific. Global climate La Niña impacts tend to be opposite those of El Niño impacts. In the tropics, ocean temperature variations in La Niña also tend to be opposite those of El Niño.

During a La Niña year, winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the Southeast and cooler than normal in the Northwest.



  1. Sodium Benzoate [see: full list]
11/14/1926

4. (Q) What causes these indigestion attacks?
(A) Through the conditions as have existed in the system, and as has been corrected to the greatest or greater extent, we find the assimilating and eliminating organs become involved and left the digestive organs susceptible to over vibration of any nature that produces too much of the reaction either in eliminating conditions or assimilating conditions. Hence certain foods - or ANY conditions over stimulating - produce a condition called indigestion, or the blood supply in the liver and digestion becomes over clogged in the system. Hence causes these contractions through duodenum, through the upper portion of the jejunum, and the system not able to create the conditions in the intestine fast enough cause pain and the lack of digestion [Intestinal colic?]. The system then thrown out of balance by these conditions.

Do not take in the system, then, especially any of those foods that produce an over acidity in the lower end of the stomach - such as pickles, or any food carrying over amount of acid or vinegar, or acetic acid, and never any canned goods having benzoate of soda. This includes relishes and things of that nature.

Use at least two bottles of Petrolagar - the ALKALINE kind, and taking a full tablespoonful of this preparation each evening will eliminate this condition, with the body receiving the adjustments in the upper dorsal and lower cervical, see?

No condition here as yet of gall stones, but the irritation is that of the acid condition of the foods entering the upper intestines, see? or not sufficient of the juices from the system thrown into the lower end of duodenum to produce full assimilating forces in the body. With those things given as has been outlined, these conditions will be overcome, see? (340-5)


    1. Martin Hickman, "Caution: Some soft drinks may seriously harm your health," Independent, May 27, 2007.
Caution: Some soft drinks may seriously harm your health

Expert links additive to cell damage

A new health scare erupted over soft drinks last night amid evidence they may cause serious cell damage. Research from a British university suggests a common preservative found in drinks such as Fanta and Pepsi Max has the ability to switch off vital parts of DNA.

The problem - more usually associated with ageing and alcohol abuse - can eventually lead to cirrhosis of the liver and degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's.

The findings could have serious consequences for the hundreds of millions of people worldwide who consume fizzy drinks. They will also intensify the controversy about food additives, which have been linked to hyperactivity in children.

Concerns centre on the safety of E211, known as sodium benzoate, a preservative used for decades by the £74bn global carbonated drinks industry. Sodium benzoate derives from benzoic acid. It occurs naturally in berries, but is used in large quantities to prevent mould in soft drinks such as Sprite, Oasis and Dr Pepper. It is also added to pickles and sauces.

Sodium benzoate has already been the subject of concern about cancer because when mixed with the additive vitamin C in soft drinks, it causes benzene, a carcinogenic substance. A Food Standards Agency survey of benzene in drinks last year found high levels in four brands which were removed from sale.

Now, an expert in ageing at Sheffield University, who has been working on sodium benzoate since publishing a research paper in 1999, has decided to speak out about another danger. Professor Peter Piper, a professor of molecular biology and biotechnology, tested the impact of sodium benzoate on living yeast cells in his laboratory. What he found alarmed him: the benzoate was damaging an important area of DNA in the "power station" of cells known as the mitochondria.

He told The Independent on Sunday: "These chemicals have the ability to cause severe damage to DNA in the mitochondria to the point that they totally inactivate it: they knock it out altogether.

The mitochondria consumes the oxygen to give you energy and if you damage it - as happens in a number if diseased states - then the cell starts to malfunction very seriously. And there is a whole array of diseases that are now being tied to damage to this DNA - Parkinson's and quite a lot of neuro-degenerative diseases, but above all the whole process of ageing.


The Food Standards Agency (FSA) backs the use of sodium benzoate in the UK and it has been approved by the European Union but last night, MPs called for it to investigate urgently.

Norman Baker, the Liberal Democrat chair of Parliament's all-party environment group said: "Many additives are relatively new and their long-term impact cannot be certain. This preservative clearly needs to be investigated further by the FSA."

A review of sodium benzoate by the World Health Organisation in 2000 concluded that it was safe, but it noted that the available science supporting its safety was "limited".

Professor Piper, whose work has been funded by a government research council, said tests conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration were out of date.

The food industry will say these compounds have been tested and they are complete safe, he said. "By the criteria of modern safety testing, the safety tests were inadequate. Like all things, safety testing moves forward and you can conduct a much more rigorous safety test than you could 50 years ago."

He advised parents to think carefully about buying drinks with preservatives until the quantities in products were proved safe by new tests. "My concern is for children who are drinking large amounts," he said.

Coca-Cola and Britvic's Pepsi Max and Diet Pepsi all contain sodium benzoate. Their makers and the British Soft Drinks Association said they entrusted the safety of additives to the Government.


    1. Claudia Wallis, "Hyper Kids? Cut Out Preservatives," Time, September 06, 2007.
      1. Donna McCann, Angelina Barrett, Alison Cooper, Debbie Crumpler, Lindy Dalen, Kate Grimshaw, Elizabeth Kitchin, Kris Lok, Lucy Porteous, Emily Prince, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, John O Warner, Jim Stevenson, "Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial," Lancet 370 (Issue 9598) (2007): pp. 1560-1567.
Hyper Kids? Cut Out Preservatives

Parents who suspect that artificial ingredients in food are affecting their children's behavior can now point to some cold, hard proof. A carefully designed study released Thursday in The Lancet, a leading British medical journal, shows that a variety of common food dyes and the preservative sodium benzoate — an ingredient in many soft drinks, fruit juices, salad dressings and other foods — causes some children to become more hyperactive and distractible than usual.

"In terms of a question that's been raging for years, it's the best study to date — an extremely good study," says Dr. Philip Shaw, a research psychiatrist in the Child Psychiatry branch of the National Institute of Mental Health.

The study prompted Britain's Food Standards Agency to issue an immediate advisory to parents to limit their children's intake of additives if they notice an effect on behavior. In the U.S., there's been no such official response, but doctors say it makes sense for parents to be on the alert.

Meanwhile, the food industry is awaiting further research. "We take our responsibility to consumers seriously and will study the research finding in great detail," says Cathy Cook, spokesperson for the International Association of Color Manufacturers.

The research, led by Jim Stevenson, a professor of psychology at England's University of Southampton, involved about 300 children in two age groups: 3-year-olds and 8- and 9-year-olds. Over three one-week periods, the children were randomly assigned to consume one of three fruit drinks daily: one contained the amount of dye and sodium benzoate typically found in a British child's diet, a second drink had a lower concentration of the additives, and a third was additive-free. All the children spent a week drinking each of the three mixtures, which looked and tasted alike. During each weeklong period, teachers and parents, who did not know which drink the kids were getting, used a variety of standardized behavior-evaluation tools — some observational and one computer-based — to size up such qualities as restlessness, lack of concentration, fidgeting, and talking or interrupting too much.

Stevenson found that children in both age groups were significantly more hyperactive when drinking the stuff containing additives. Three-year-olds had a bigger response than the older kids to the lower dose of additives — roughly the same amount of food coloring as in two 2-oz. bags of candy. And, there were big individual differences in sensitivity. While the effects were not nearly so great as to cause full-blown ADHD, Stevenson nonetheless warns that "these adverse effects could affect the child's ability to benefit from the experience of school."

He notes that a separate pilot study found that kids can become more hyperactive within one hour of consuming food additives.

The Lancet study is the first to nail down a link between artificial ingredients and hyperactivity, though the connection has long been suspected and was the basis for the Feingold Diet, which eliminates all artificial colors, flavors, sweeteners and preservatives and was popularized in the 1970s as a treatment for ADHD. Though such a diet alone is not a proven treatment for ADHD, some clinicians routinely advise parents of kids with ADHD to stick with a more natural diet." I'm not maniacal about it, but I tell parents that your kid will do better if they are on a diet that is free of additives and junk food," says psychiatrist Edward Hallowell, author a several books on ADHD. "I urge them to eat whole foods; they'll be healthier anyway."

Now that a link has been found, researchers will be looking to confirm the British study and build upon it. "My guess is that if we do similarly systematic work with other additives, we'd learn they, too, have implications for behavior," says Dr. James Perrin, professor of pediatrics at Harvard. "My friends who study the food industry say we have about 70,000 new products a year, so children are facing tremendous numbers of new opportunities for things that may not be good for them." The study, he says, is one more reason to cheer the movement toward organic and natural foods.



  1. Blood Diagnosis
11/10/1927

12. (Q) Does the blood still show traces or effects of my bodily condition?
(A) This is bettered, though there are still EVIDENCES of same in blood. For, as is seen, there is no condition existent in a body that the reflection of same may not be traced in the blood supply, for not only does the blood stream carry the rebuilding forces to the body, it also takes the used forces and eliminates same through their proper channels in the various portions of the system. Hence we find red blood, white blood and lymph all carried in the veins. These are only separated by the very small portions that act as builders, strainers, destroyers, or resuscitating portions of the system - see? Hence there is ever seen in the blood stream the reflections or evidences of that condition being carried on in the physical body. The day may yet arrive when one may take a drop of blood and diagnose the condition of any physical body. [See 283-2, Par. R2, R3.] (283-2)


    1. Lawrence K. Altman, "A Pinprick Provides Enough Blood for Full Tests," New York Times, November 03, 1969.



  1. Nile
02/20/1931

9. In the one before this we find again in this same land now called Egypt (this before the mountains rose in the south, and when the waters called the Nile then emptied into what is NOW the Atlantic Ocean). [GD's note: See [5748] Egypt.] The entity was among those peoples who gathered in places to establish various groups, or families, or sects, to prevent the inroads upon the peoples from the beasts from without, and the entity aided through this experience in the gathering together of various groups, various peoples, to join hands as a COMMON interest for the common interests of all. In the NAME Hein. (276-2)

07/01/1932

17. (Q) What is the significance of the character of the figure of the Sphinx, mentioned above?
(A) In this particular period of Araaraart and of the priest (that began those understandings - and passed through those of the hell in the misinterpretation of same), there was even then the seeking through those channels that are today called archaeological research.

In those periods when the first change had come in the position of the land, there had been an egress of peoples - or THINGS, as would be called today - from the Atlantean land, when the Nile (of Nole, then) emptied into what is now the Atlantic Ocean, on the Congo end of the country. What is now as the Sahara was a fertile land, a city that was builded in the edge of the land, a city of those that worshipped the sun - for the use of its rays were used for supplying from the elements that which is required in the present to be grown through a season; or the abilities to use both those of introgression and retrogression - and mostly retrograded, as we are in the present. The beginnings of these mounds were as an interpretation of that which was crustating in the land. (See, most of the people had tails then!) In those beginnings these were left.

When there was the entrance of Arart and Araaraart, they begin to build upon those mounds which were discovered through research. With the storehouse, or record house (where the records are still to be uncovered), there is a chamber or passage from the right forepaw to this entrance of the record chamber, or record tomb. This may not be entered without an understanding, for those that were left as guards may NOT be passed until after a period of their regeneration in the Mount, or the fifth root race begins.

In the building of the pyramid, and that which is now called the Mystery of Mysteries, this was intended to be a MEMORIAL - as would be termed today - to that counsellor who ruled or governed, or who acted in the capacity of the director in the MATERIAL things in the land. With the return of the priest (as it had been stopped), this was later - by Isis, the queen, or the daughter of Ra - turned so as to present to those peoples in that land the relationships of man and the animal or carnal world with those changes that fade or fall away in their various effect. These may be seen in a different manner presented in many of the various sphinxes, as called, in other portions of the land - as the lion with the man, the various forms of wing, or characterizations in their various developments. These were as presentations of those projections that had been handed down in their various developments of that which becomes man - as in the present. (5748-6)

11/17/1932

11. (Q) Describe the earth's surface at the period of the appearance of the five projections.
(A) This has been given. In the first, or that known as the beginning, or in the Caucasian and Carpathian, or the Garden of Eden, in that land which lies now much in the desert, yet much in mountain and much in the rolling lands there. The extreme northern portions were then the southern portions, or the polar regions were then turned to where they occupied more of the tropical and semi-tropical regions; hence it would be hard to discern or disseminate the change. The Nile entered into the Atlantic Ocean. What is now the Sahara was an inhabited land and very fertile. What is now the central portion of this country, or the Mississippi basin, was then all in the ocean; only the plateau was existent, or the regions that are now portions of Nevada, Utah and Arizona formed the greater part of what we know as the United States. That along the Atlantic board formed the outer portion then, or the lowlands of Atlantis. The Andean, or the Pacific coast of South America, occupied then the extreme western portion of Lemuria. The Urals and the northern regions of same were turned into a tropical land. The desert in the Mongolian land was then the fertile portion. This may enable you to form SOME concept of the status of the earth's representations at that time! The oceans were then turned about; they no longer bear their names, yet from whence obtained they their names? What is the legend, even, as to their names? [See Source File Key #2746 for 4/41 Comdr. Wynne's map of coming rising Atlantis, re 2746-3.] (364-13)


    1. Richard A. Kerr, "Ancient River System Across Africa Proposed," Science 233 (Issue 4767) (1986): 940.
Ancient River System Across Africa Proposed

According to a new hypothesis, a river system of Amazonian proportions once spanned the African continent. It flowed from near the present-day Red Sea, across the path of today's Nile, through the eastern Saharan Desert that now receives only 1 millimeter of rainfall per year, across central Africa with its towering mountains, and into the Atlantic 4500 kilometers from the system's headwaters. Today that ancient route lies broken into isolated pieces-its water stolen by other rivers, blocked by new mountains, or scorched from the ground illustrating the many ways that rivers, even the mightiest, can die.
This long dead trans-African river system is being proposed by John McCauley and his colleagues at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff and at other institutions on the basis of the latest in satellite remote sensing, the current understanding of how plate tectonics has shaped Africa, and the revelations of a backhoe operated near the Egypt-Sudan border.
Remote sensing by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) provided a missing link in the system and impetus for further study when in 1981 it revealed a previously unseen network of river valleys beneath the driest part of the Sahara where Libya, Egypt, and Sudan meet. Filled by windblown sediments and overlain by a few meters of sand, the existence of such valleys had been surmised only here and there on the basis of scattered patches of stream-worn gravel or from serendipitous discoveries during oil exploration. But the SIR signals penetrated the meter or two of obscuring sand and reflected to varying degrees from valley fill, underlying rock, and cemented sediment, revealing that the area once thought to be a winderoded flatland devoid of major streams had instead been cut by river valleys 10 to 30 kilometers wide and hundreds of kilometers long. Radar images of the present-day Nile Valley 300 kilometers to the east bear a strong resemblance to these buried valleys.
Just where the source of these rivers and the associated drainage system was or where they flowed to was not clear from the radar images. Fortunately, comparison with Landsat images did make it possible for researchers to trace the river courses by following subtle nuances of topography, color, and texture. Guided by the Landsat images and a satellite navigation system, McCauley and his colleagues in the SIR-B Egypt task group found and dug into channels as narrow as 0.5 kilometer wide, unearthing from beneath a desolate sandy surface the remains of freshwater clams and aquatic snails, casts of the roots of reeds, quarter-million-year-old hand axes, and equally ancient riverside campsites. Clearly, the rivers made the area a good deal more livable than it is today.
The group initially proposed that the ancient radar rivers drained into the Bodele and Chad basins, the low points of the south-central Sahara that now contain one shallow lake-Lake Chad-that on occasion drains to the normally dry adjacent basin. That suggestion has held up, the group believes, but they now favor the Red Sea Hills in far northeast Africa between the Red Sea and the present-day Nile as the most likely source. The Red Sea Hills rose 2 kilometers about 40 million years ago as rifting split Africa from Arabia to form the Red Sea. With the radar rivers providing the missing link, water could have flowed off the Red Sea Hills in far northeastern Africa, through the Chad Basin, and then out to the Atlantic 4500 kilometers away through the Benue Trough, a linear depression formed at the bottom of the bulge of West Africa when the opening of the South Atlantic began a rift but could not keep it open.
To look at a modern-day map, this route seems an unlikely one. The explanation is that the obvious obstacles are younger than the proposed trans-African drainage system. Their development dismembered the trans-African drainage system but only after it had been flowing 10 million and perhaps more than 20 million years, according to the proposal. Fifteen million years ago, doming of the crust and outpourings of lava, alterations of the sort that precede rifting, began to divide the one great drainage basin into several basins. Six million years ago the Mediterranean dried up, letting the primeval Nile cut a Grand Canyon-size valley southward. In the colorful language of geologists, this pirate stream beheaded the older, Atlantic- ward flowing system, stealing its headwaters for the Mediterranean.
The final blow would have come only about 2 million years ago when progressively intensifyring aridity struck the system's mid and upper reaches; earlier, lush vegetation had generally covered the area. Occasional rejuvenation of channels embedded in the fill of the radar rivers drew early humans to their banks, but', of late, humans have been only passing through, often unknowingly following the hard, trafficable fill of the old valleys hidden below. What the far future holds for the path once followed by the river system no one can say, but, if the past is any guide, it will be interestingbefore there were channels filled with freshwater, a broad seaway bisected the continent there.



  1. Atlantis/Bimini Road
    1. Atlantis
02/16/1932

3. The position as the continent Atlantis occupied, is that as between the Gulf of Mexico on the one hand - and the Mediterranean upon the other. Evidences of this lost civilization are to be found in the Pyrenees and Morocco on the one hand, British Honduras [see: Belize], Yucatan and America upon the other. There are some protruding portions within this that must have at one time or another been a portion of this great continent. The British West Indies or the Bahamas, and a portion of same that may be seen in the present - if the geological survey would be made in some of these - especially, or notably, in Bimini and in the Gulf Stream through this vicinity, these may be even yet determined. (364-3)


      1. Maurice Ewing, "New Discoveries on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," The National Geographic Magazine, November 1949, 612-613.
Some of the things we found on this second cruise create new scientific puzzles. One was the discovery of prehistoric beach sand in two core samples of the bottom, brought up in one casefrom a depth of two and in the other nearly three and one-half miles, far from any place where beaches exist today.

In one core there were actually two layers of sand, one 20,000 to 100,000 years old and the other 225,000 to 325,000, these ages being calculated from the depth and the average rate at which sediment is deposited.


      1. Related material
        1. RTP Açores, "Pirâmide debaixo de água deixa investigadores intrigados," 1:52, September 23, 2013.
Pirâmide debaixo de água deixa investigadores intrigados (Vídeo)

Foi descoberta uma pirâmide submersa com 60 metros de altura e 8 mil metros quadrados de base perto do Banco D. João de Castro, entre as ilhas Terceira e São Miguel.

A estrutura foi identificada pelo velejador Diocleciano Silva, através de leitura batimétrica.

O autor da descoberta não acredita que a pirâmide seja de origem natural.

O Governo Regional diz que o assunto já está a ser investigado com o apoio da marinha portuguesa.

O Secretário Regional da Educação, Luiz Fagundes Duarte, acredita que, tendo em conta a localização numa zona muito investigada e monitorizada, não se deve tratar de obra humana.

Telejornal, RTP/Açores

Google Translate:

Pyramid underwater leaves intrigued researchers (Video)

It was discovered a submerged pyramid 60 meters high [see: 196.8504 feet, but according to the bathymetric reading from the video, the pyramid sits 370 feet below with the apex 136 feet from the surface; this gives a height of 234 feet or 71 meters approximately (because of the undulation of the waves)] and 8 thousand square meters of base near the Bank D. João de Castro, between the islands of Terceira and São Miguel.

The structure was identified by the sailor Diocleciano Silva through bathymetric reading.

The author of the discovery does not believe that the pyramid is of natural origin.

The Government says that it is already being investigated with the support of the Portuguese Navy.

The Regional Secretary for Education, Luiz Fagundes Duarte, believes that, given the location in a very investigated and monitored area, do not deal with human work.


    1. Bimini Road
03/02/1927

14. (Q) Is this the continent known as Alta or Poseidia? [Atlantis]
(A) A temple of the Poseidians was in a portion of this land [see: 'the islands of North and South Bimini']. (996-12)

12/20/1933

3. (Q) Give an account of the electrical and mechanical knowledge of the entity as Asal-Sine in Atlantis.
(A) Yes, we have the entity's activities during that experience. As indicated, the entity was associated with those that dealt with the mechanical appliances and their application during the experience. And, as we find, it was a period when there was much that has not even been thought of as yet in the present experiences.

About the firestone that was in the experience did the activities of the entity then make those applications that dealt with both the constructive and destructive forces in the period.

It would be well that there be given something of a description of this, that it may be better understood by the entity in the present, as to how both constructive and destructive forces were generated by the activity of this stone.

In the center of a building, that today would be said to have been lined with non-conductive metals, or non-conductive stone - something akin to asbestos, with the combined forces of bakerite [bakelite?] or other non-conductors that are now being manufactured in England under a name that is known well to many of those that deal in such things.

The building above the stone was oval, or a dome wherein there could be or was the rolling back, so that the activity of the stone was received from the sun's rays, or from the stars; the concentrating of the energies that emanate from bodies that are on fire themselves - with the elements that are found and that are not found in the earth's atmosphere. The concentration through the prisms or glass, as would be called in the present, was in such a manner that it acted upon the instruments that were connected with the various modes of travel, through induction methods - that made much the character of control as the remote control through radio vibrations or directions would be in the present day; though the manner of the force that was impelled from the stone acted upon the motivating forces in the crafts themselves.

There was the preparation so that when the dome was rolled back there might be little or no hindrance in the application direct to the various crafts that were to be impelled through space, whether in the radius of the visioning of the one eye, as it might be called, or whether directed under water or under other elements or through other elements.

The preparation of this stone was in the hands only of the initiates at the time, and the entity was among those that directed the influences of the radiation that arose in the form of the rays that were invisible to the eye but that acted upon the stones themselves as set in the motivating forces - whether the aircraft that were lifted by the gases in the period or whether guiding the more pleasure vehicles that might pass along close to the earth, or what would be termed the crafts on the water or under the water.

These, then, were impelled by the concentrating of the rays from the stone that was centered in the middle of the power station, or power house (that would be termed in the present).

In the active forces of these the entity brought destructive forces, by the setting up - in various portions of the land - the character that was to act as producing the powers in the various forms of the people's activities in the cities, the towns, the countries surrounding same. These, not intentionally, were TUNED too high - and brought the second period of destructive forces to the peoples in the land, and broke up the land into the isles that later became the periods when the further destructive forces were brought in the land.

Through the same form of fire the bodies of individuals were regenerated, by the burning - through the application of the rays from the stone, the influences that brought destructive forces to an animal organism. Hence the body rejuvenated itself often, and remained in that land until the eventual destruction, joining with the peoples that made for the breaking up of the land - or joining with Baalilal [Baal? Belial?] at the final destruction of the land. In this the entity lost. At first, it was not the intention nor desire for destructive forces. Later it was for the ascension of power itself.

As to describing the manner of construction of the stone, we find it was a large cylindrical glass (as would be termed today), cut with facets in such a manner that the capstone on top of same made for the centralizing of the power or force that concentrated between the end of the cylinder and the capstone itself.

As indicated, [See 996-12] the records of the manners of construction of same are in three places in the earth, as it stands today: In the sunken portions of Atlantis, or Poseidia, where a portion of the temples may yet be discovered, under the slime of ages of sea water - near what is known as Bimini, off the coast of Florida. And in the temple records that were in Egypt, where the entity later acted in cooperation with others in preserving the records that came from the land where these had been kept. Also the records that were carried to what is now Yucatan in America, where these stones (that they know so little about) are now - during the last few months - BEING uncovered. (440-5)

06/28/1940

43. This brought consternation to the entity, and also those influences the application or use of which brought destruction to the land. And Poseidia will be among the first portions of Atlantis to rise again. Expect it in sixty-eight and sixty-nine ('68 and '69); not so far away! [See 958-3, Par. R5.] (958-3)


      1. Bill Middleton, "DO BAHAMAS HOLD CLUE TO ATLANTIS LEGEND?," Florida Times-Union (Jacksonville), September 03, 1968.
DO BAHAMAS HOLD CLUE TO ATLANTIS LEGEND?

Did Atlantis exist? For hundreds of years archaeologists and historians have been debating the old legend of a lost city. Recent discoveries of a sunken temple in Bahamian waters have reopened the debate. Was Kentuckian Edgar Cayce right when he said lost Atlantis would re-surface in the 1968-69?

Edgar Cayce predicted it would happen. Is it happening?

Recently, a Miami archaeologist was reported to have said he had discovered in Bahamian waters and ancient "temple" he thought might be part of the legendary lost continent of Atlantis.

In the 1940's, a man named Edgar Cayce predicted that parts of Atlantis would begin to reappear in 1968-69, that the first appearance would be that of a temple, and it would be found in the waters of the Bahamas.

The archaeologist, Dr. Manson Valentine, told the Florida-Times-Union that he is not sure that the underwater find is an Atlantis temple.

"It could be," he said, "but the fact that it's so near the surface would make it too young to be a temple of Atlantis. But if it is not, I think one is out there. Yes, I believe there was an Atlantis. As a scientist, I believe it."

John Beakley, who has worked with Valentine, said, "I don't think there is an Atlantis. I have to have more facts. I don't say it didn't exist, but I'm not convinced."

Beakley, who is an oceanographer and head teacher at the Duval County Marine Science Education Center at Mayport, knew Valentine at the University of North Carolina where Valentine taught zoology. He also taught the subject at Yale where he received his Ph.D.

Beakley said he and Valentine explored hundreds of caves in North Carolina, and that he (Beakley) has known Valentine for many years.

"He is one of the most brilliant men I've ever met," Beakley said. "I know he believes in Atlantis, and I understand that this thing on Atlantis is serious enough that a national network is going to work with Valentine on a TV program on Atlantis."

Valentine does not say Cayce's prediction is incorrect. He is just not sure this temple is the temple of the prediction.

"The structure is man made," Valentine said. "It couldn't be a freak of nature. It is about 110 feet long and 75 feet wide. The top is about two feet above the ocean floor. It is rectangular, with the east end and southwest corner partitioned off. At the east end are three rooms.

"I don't know if its the foundation of a building. It could be. The age of it is what is puzzling us. I've found other temples with this pattern of structure, which has to do with metaphysical rituals. We'll wait and see if Cayce is right."

Who was Cayce?

Born in Kentucky, he believed he could go into some sort of hypnotic sleep, and while asleep, diagnose a person's ills and recommend the cure. He also gave life readings, and in these readings he often gave predictions.

When he died at Virginia Beach, Va., in 1945, he left more than 14,000 documented records of his statements, or readings. These readings can be seen at the Association for Research and Enlightenment at Virginia Beach. More than six books have been written about Edgar Cayce.

His predictions?
He foresaw two world wars and picked the years they would start and end. He forecast the 1929 depression. In the 1920's, he saw racial strife in the future.

His Atlantis prediction, in part, goes:1 "The temple will rise again. Also there will be the opening of the temple of records, and those records that were put in the heart of the Atlantean land may also be found there.1 Poseidia (Cayce's Atlantis broke up into five islands,2 the three largest being Poseidia, Aryan and Og)3 will be among the first portions of Atlantis to rise again. Expect it in sixty-eight and sixty-nine.4 British West Indies or Bahamas."5

Valentine, who is curator of the Miami museum of Science, said "The whole Bahama area is a mass of strange geology. There are walls that have been discovered under water near Bimini that we will investigate, and there are a number of suspicious areas about 50 miles south of Bimini that we'll look into."

Working with Valentine is Dimitri Rebikoff, Fort Lauderdale oceanographer and underwater explorer. Of Cayce's Atlantis prediction, he said, "It is quite a coincidence. It is not impossible that the structure is part of Atlantis. This one is in about six feet of water, and obviously was originally built on an elevation.

"It has to be from 600 to 1,000 years old. It is the first sunken building to be discovered in the Western Hemisphere. You know, there is a basic legend in Mexico that says years ago a white man with a beard and blue eyes arrived from the sea to teach. Many people think the man was from Atlantis."

Valentine and Rebikoff have asked permission of the Bahamian government to excavate the ruin, and are not revealing the location to keep away souvenir hunters and the curious.

"The edifice could be Mayan," Valentine said. He has discovered many important Mayan relics during his explorations in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. "The Mayans are, I believe, a part of the Atlantis people."

Whether you believe in Atlantis or not, or whether you believe what Cayce predicted, if you are at all curious, keep your eyes on the Bahamas.


      1. Related material
        1. Vivienne Verdon-Roe, "The Discovery of the Atlantean Crystal," Spirals (Number 3), February 1978.
The Discovery of the Atlantean Crystal

A report on DR. RAY BROWN’S talk at the Clearlight Foundation Conference, December 1977, in Santa Barbara, California, by Vivienne Verdon-Roe.

Edgar Cayce predicted that Atlantis would be discovered in 1968. It was in 1968 that Ray Brown, a treasure and artifact diver, located a massive area that had intense magnetic readings beneath the Atlantic waters in the exact center of the Bermuda Triangle, not far from Bimini. At the time, the diving crew was searching for sunken Spanish galleons in the hope of finding treasure. Although on this occasion nothing was found on the seabed, Brown decided to return to the same spot of magnetic readings two years later with a new crew. In preparation for the arduous diving required, the group underwent warm-up dives. It was during one of these that Brown was involved in an accident. He ran out of air underwater, and was brought up approximately two hours later. His description of his death experience beneath the ocean is remarkable. (It is one of several related in an up-coming TV ‘Movie of the Week’ film called ‘World Beyond Death’) On coming up from a dive, he was hit by a fishing-boat’s propeller, which drove him down through the water.
"All kinds of thoughts went through my mind, and then the realization came that I was dying, that this was death. I could see a little trickle of blood flowing past me, and felt shock. My arms were extended; I was just floating free. At 40 feet deep, you are weightless; you don’t go up or down; you simply float. All at once, a deep relaxation came over me. I felt as though someone had thrown a switch. I could see sea-life, sea-aenomies, all the tropical fish, and I was so absorbed in this beautiful scene which I saw with a clarity I’d never before, I forgot all about what was happening to me physically. This awareness with this visual impact grew: it was so intense - it was like dropping water in a pond - it began to expand like a wave. It kept growing, and I’d expand clear around the globe. After over-lapping the planets several times, this awareness gathered potency, and suddenly burst free. I was totally free, flying through space, outside the confines of the earth. My awareness, with full vision, was travelling outward, and I was touching other planets. I was aware of going beyond this universe, into other galaxies – and it just kept going all 360 degrees, expanding.”
Brown was shaken away from this experience when a hand reached up and grabbed his shoulder, and then he felt someone pushing him up to the surface. He was lifted into a coastguard helicopter, and people shone lights into his eyes, saying “He’s dead”. He found he was unable to speak, and so could not contradict them. When they landed on the hospital pad, and a respirator was used on him, “all at once , this switch that had turned off, turned on again. And the life force jumped back into my body. It was like an electric shock.”
As a doctor, Brown still finds it hard to logically explain the experience. It is usual to die, to not survive, after four or five minutes without air. He says that he can only believe that his body had literally shut off, and, by not having any requirements, the organs survived.
On recovery, getting back into the water was difficult, but Brown decided that “if dying can’t kill you, what was there to fear!” So two weeks later, together with the four other divers, he set off for the center of the Bermuda Triangle. On the way out, they could see a tropical storm pursuing them. Summer squalls in the Bahamas are beautiful but frightening – black clouds, streaks of violent deep-red lightning, and winds of up to 300 m.p.h. – and “they can tear a ship into toothpicks in a matter of minutes.” Despite the fact that they prepared as best they could for the storm, it was tremendous, and they lost a great deal of their equipment and sustained considerable bruising and minor injuries. However, the storm had caused sand on the sea-bed to shift, and it was now possible to see what had caused such extreme magnetic readings. Beneath the murky waters were the outlines of an underwater city, approximately 15 miles long and 5 miles wide. So excited were they at such a find, that caution was thrown to the wind, and the divers slipped over the side of the boat, without the usual equipment and disregarding the normal safety precautions. They did not explore in twos, for example, but swam off on their own.
When he was at a great depth (22 fathoms [see: 132 feet]), Brown chanced to look upwards through the unsettled waters, and he saw a fantastic sight. Dazzling beams of sunlight outlined a huge pyramid peak, standing 90 feet [see: apex 42 feet from the surface] above the sand. (He believes the pyramid would be about 400 feet tall if fully exposed.) The sea about it was a beautiful golden hue: "it looked as if the water was on fire.” The great stone structure was so highly polished it looked like a solid mirror, and was quite free from any coral encrustations one might expect to find on an unmoving underwater object. Swimming around the monument, Brown tried to get near the capstone, but this proved difficult because the surrounding water was surging dangerously. However, he could make out that it was blue in color, ressembling Lapiz with gold veins. On his third pass around the pyramid, he was surprised to observe a large opening in it, which he had not noticed before. Although apprehensive, he swam in - into a rectangular room, peaked at the ceiling. From this, a 2 inch diameter gold colored metallic rod hung straight downward, and beneath it was a pedestal, on which were metallic hands directed upward. In their grasp rested the perfectly formed crystal sphere. Around the pedestal were seven very large stone chairs. Brown sat on one for a moment, and then swam up to the ceiling where he tried to shake loose the gold rod, yet to no avail. He knew his air was running short, so, wanting to leave with evidence of his find, he attempted to scrape some of the ‘gold’ off the rod, but merely ruined his stainless steel knife. Disappointed and tired, he settled back to the bottom again and rested in ‘his’ chair.
"As I gathered my thoughts, I looked and light was streaming reflectedly off the crystal. I reached out and touched it, and it moved. It was the only loose object I could bring back from my underwater experience. So I removed the crystal. As I picked it up in my hand, it was as though a voice permeated my very physical presence and the building around me. It said “You have got what you have come for. Leave and do not return." And I left."
Now conscious of an ominous presence in that strange place, Brown immediately swam out of the pyramid, and surfaced.
Dr. Ray Brown’s experience was certainly an extraordinary one, as indeed, is the crystal itself. It seems that crystals and spheres are powerful and can accumulate energy. Anyone who puts their hands above the Atlantean crystal is aware of a current of energy. The higher the hands above it, the more energy can be felt, and if the hands are moved up and down, one can feel the energy is in layers - hot and cold, or positive and negative ionic energy. Inside the sphere itself are three pyramid outlines, made up of thousands of little grid-lines, naturally formed in the quartz. Some strange photographs were taken in Detroit, when the camera captured a human eye inside the crystal, very similar in appearance to the Egyptian symbol, the ‘all-seeing eye’.
At a demonstration of the stone in Phoenix, Arizona, one evening, a psychic was psychometrizing it, when it gave off a radiant light, which lasted for some three to four hours. Several psychics have seen the crystal, and all say it is not of this earth; they believe it to be extra-terrestial.
Since the Atlantean crystal’s removal from the sea-bed, there have been no major disasters in the Bemuda Triangle. Nevertheless, there is one rather sad postscript to the story. The four other divers, to whom Brown had related the intuitional warning not to return, have all since drowned in that area.


(“Since my out-of-body experience, ever since that moment, I feel my time here is very precious, that it doesn’t really belong to me, but it belongs to the work that I now do." Dr. Ray Brown is a holistic healer, using homeopathic self-therapy. During the preparation of the medications, the crystal’s radiation is applied, and the remedies have been found to be very successful with his patients. For more information, write to Dr. Ray Brown, Institute for Creative Living, 1030 Pearl St, Suite 3, La Jolla, Ca 92037.)


          1. In Search Of…, "The Bimini Wall," 22:49, February 21, 1980.

        1. Tim Golden, "Mystery of Bermuda Triangle Remains One," New York Times, June 5, 1991.
Mystery of Bermuda Triangle Remains One

Just as the skeptics were about to claim a logical explanation, the legend of the Bermuda Triangle today was declared to be alive and well and vexing off the coast of South Florida.

The undersea explorers who announced last month that they might have discovered five Navy planes that vanished mysteriously in 1945, laying a foundation for the myth of a craft-swallowing Caribbean twilight zone, said that on closer inspection, the planes they found turned out not to be those of the fabled "Flight 19."

"The Bermuda Triangle, I'm afraid, if you want to find mystery, is probably even aliver and weller than it was before," said Graham S. Hawkes, the British engineer whose exploration ship happened on the Avenger aircraft on May 8, while looking for sunken treasure.

With a mixture of regret and relief, Mr. Hawkes said at a news conference that in four of the five cases, the tail numbers of the planes his team had found did not match those of the lost aircraft. It just so happened that the one marked "28" -- the same number stenciled on the mystery squadron's lead plane -- was the one that the explorers spotted first, he said. They learned later that the Navy often recycled the tail numbers of lost aircraft.

Even on closer passes over the submerged planes, the high-technology remote camera that operates from Mr. Hawkes's vessel, the Deep See, could not detect serial numbers on any of the aircraft. But the model type suggested that most of the planes predated those lost on Dec. 5, 1945.

As to how the five Avengers had ended up clustered in a 1.2-nautical mile radius, sitting upright and mostly undamaged 550 to 750 feet beneath the surface, Mr. Hawkes and his crew were still guessing. Nonetheless, he assured the gathered media, "You can discount aliens."

Ted Darcy, a marine archeologist who examined videotapes of the Deep See's discovery, said he believed that a naval air base at Fort Lauderdale had used an area near that where the planes were found for low-altitude torpedo drops. The explorers speculated that each plane might have crashed over a period of time while making practice runs at the target.

The "Lost Patrol," as the squadron has been called by a generation of pulp-paperback investigators, set off from the old Fort Lauderdale Naval Air Station, site of that city's international airport today, on a routine three-hour training mission. In bad weather, the lead pilot became disoriented, thinking they were over the Gulf of Mexico. The planes apparently flew eastward, further out into the Atlantic. Finally, the commander ordered the planes to ditch together when the first of them began running out of fuel. Then their radio transmissions went dead. Despite a search over 250,000 square miles, the 14 flyers were never heard from again. Feeding the Mystery

But the mystery only began there. Fed by reports of radios stricken dead, compasses gone haywire and unidentified flying objects (not to mention the disappearance of hundreds more planes and ships), the area between Miami, Puerto Rico and Bermuda came to be known to believers as a province of supernatural forces. At least 139 of the World War II vintage Avengers have been lost off the Florida coast.

Though writers and supermarket tabloids continue to trade on the notion of a ravenous plot of ocean, scientists have said for years that there is nothing to it.

Mr. Hawkes and his colleagues said they were glad to be getting on with their effort to comb 1,000 square miles of the ocean floor for Spanish galleons and other interesting or lucrative wrecks.

And after an onslaught of media attention, a deluge of offers from movie and television producers and a legal tussle with the Navy, they said they were not sure they wanted to find any more planes.

"If we find five more aircraft," Mr. Hawkes said, "I'm not sure we'll tell anyone."


        1. Destination Truth, "Bermuda Triangle," 43:40, October 14, 2009.

Bimini: EMF anomalies.




  1. Haplogroup X
02/16/1932

3. The position as the continent Atlantis occupied, is that as between the Gulf of Mexico on the one hand - and the Mediterranean upon the other. Evidences of this lost civilization are to be found in the Pyrenees and Morocco on the one hand, British Honduras [see: Belize], Yucatan and America upon the other. There are some protruding portions within this that must have at one time or another been a portion of this great continent. The British West Indies or the Bahamas, and a portion of same that may be seen in the present - if the geological survey would be made in some of these - especially, or notably, in Bimini and in the Gulf Stream through this vicinity, these may be even yet determined. (364-3)

12/20/1943

22. The entity was among those of the second generation of Atlanteans who struggled northward from Yucatan, settling in what is now a portion of Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio; being among those of the earlier period known as Mound Builders. (3528-1)


    1. Maggie Villiger, "Tracing the Genes," PBS, July 20, 2004.
Tracing the Genes

July 20, 2004 -- The archaeologists in "Coming Into America" mostly rely on artifacts like tools to help piece together the history of the first Americans. But in recent years, scientists have begun turning to genetic evidence as they trace the earliest human migrations around the globe.

The predominant theory is that modern humans evolved in Africa and then migrated through the Middle East to Europe and Asia, beginning some time between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago. What was the route for early humans into the Americas? Scientists compare the DNA of indigenous people in the New World with that of people in Europe and Asia, looking for similarities. The more alike two people's DNA, the more closely related they are - it's as if tiny maps of our ancient origins are hidden within our cells. Anthropologists are using genetics to figure out where some of the first Americans came from, and when.

Mother's side of the family
One group of scientists tracks maternal lineage through what's called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This is genetic material found inside mitochondria - structures within every cell that produce energy. What's useful about mitochondria is that they retain their own genes from generation to generation. Their genes aren't a mixture of those from both parents, like all the other genes in our cells. Instead, mtDNA comes solely from your mother, when some of her mitochondria are included in the egg that eventually becomes you. Everyone, whether male or female, gets their mtDNA from their mom, unchanged.

So mtDNA isn't reshuffled every generation in the normal course of inheritance. What does happen, though, is that over the centuries small mutations take place regularly, that are then passed on to future generations. This is the unique process that scientists take advantage of to help figure out both the age and origins of human populations.

MtDNA mutates at a certain predictable rate - it's like a clock ticking, but with the clock recording every tick. So it's possible to judge when distant populations originally diverged, based on how different the mtDNA they have today is. If a group of people splits up, some going east and some going west, mtDNA mutations found in the east but not the west likely originated after the group diverged. Count up the mutations and - knowing the rate at which they would have occurred - you can figure out when the family tree branched off. "You literally have a genetic clock," explained Douglas Wallace, a professor of molecular medicine at the University of California, Irvine.

Scientists categorize mtDNA into a number of so-called haplogroups, based on their similarities and differences. You can think of them as like blood types - they don't affect the way you live, but they can be identified at the molecular level.

The conventional wisdom to explain the peopling of the Americas is that migrants crossed from northeast Asia to Alaska around 13,000 years ago to become the ancestors of today's Native Americans. But mtDNA analysis has revealed some unexpected links between Europe and North America. When scientists analyzed the mtDNA of a broad sample of living Native Americans, they found that about 97 percent had mtDNA from haplogroups A, B, C or D. These haplogroups are all present in modern day Siberia and Asia, so it makes sense that the forefathers of those Native Americans came from those regions. But the surprise was that about 3 percent of the Native Americans tested had mtDNA from a different haplogroup, called X. Some populations, such as the Ojibwa from the Great Lakes region, have a high concentration of X - 25 percent.

How did haplogroup X get to North America? Some X has been found in Mongolia, but it's definitely not common in modern Asia. It can, however, be found in about 4 percent of the present day European population. Genetic anthropologists suggest that the presence of X in North America points to an early migration westward from Europe. By looking at the various mutations within haplogroup X, scientists are able to use that "genetic clock" to estimate when those early Europeans would have arrived. Depending on how large a group they assume headed west, they come up with two time ranges - either between 36,000 and 23,000 years ago or between 17,000 and 12,000 years ago.

X definitely did not arrive in America with the European explorers of the last 500 years or so. European X and American X are different enough that scientists say they must have diverged thousands of years ago, long before the age of exploration introduced European genes to the New World. Scientists have also done some testing on pre-Columbian Native American skeletal remains from before 1300, and found haplogroup X in the same proportion it's present in modern Native American populations.

There's more work to do on mtDNA, in both the Americas and Asia. Critics argue that people with haplogroup X could have migrated eastward from Europe to Asia and then across the Beringia land bridge; their descendents in Asia could have subsequently died out, so we don't see their traces in modern populations. Scientists hope to answer this question by sequencing the Mongolian haplogroup X mtDNA to see if it's an intermediate form between European X and Native American X.

Father's Side of the Family
Dads' DNA can be tracked too. The Y chromosome that all males carry is passed on from father to son with little change, since it doesn't recombine with any of the mother's DNA. Scientists can use the Y chromosome to trace paternal lineages over time. They categorize men into haplogroups based on the presence or absence of different markers found on the Y chromosome. It's a simple test to figure out your haplogroup, using a blood sample or even just a mouth swab. Just like mtDNA, Y chromosomes can hint at where your ancestors originated. Geneticists have examined the Y chromosomes of Native Americans and the Asians who are presumed to share common ancestors with them. What they see are genetic similarities. Natives of southern Middle Siberia share Y chromosome haplogroups (called M45a and M3) with natives of North, Central, and South America. And other haplogroups (called M45b and RPS4Y-T) native to Chukotka, just across the Bering Strait from Alaska, are shared by indigenous people in North and Central America. These results point to two migrations, and since the people carrying M45a and M3 haplogroups penetrated further into the new world, as far as South America, they probably came over first.

The idea of two separate migrations fits nicely with the two migrations suggested by mtDNA studies. It seems likely that men bearing the M45a and M3 Y chromosome were traveling with women carrying A, C and D mtDNA. Based on the mtDNA dates, this migration probably occurred 20-30,000 years ago. Using similar reasoning, the second wave would have arrived in North America between 9,500 and 7,000 years ago.

Your Great, Great, Great etc Grandfather
Most of these studies collect DNA from people currently living, and then try to figure out where else people with a similar haplotype are alive today. But DNA can be extracted from remains as well. Consider the surprising case of Cheddar Man, a hunter-gatherer who lived in southern England 9,000 years ago. His skeletal remains were found in a cave in 1903. Recently scientists collected DNA samples from people whose families had lived in that area of Somerset for generations, hoping for a match. Using mtDNA, a direct descendant of Cheddar Man was found living only about a mile away from the skeleton's final resting place. Adrian Targett, a history teacher, now holds the honor of having the world's most distant confirmed relative. That's one tall family tree!

Surprising as it may seem, today many people still live in the same regions as their very distant forefathers. Genetic archaeologists bank on this when they assume individuals can be taken to represent a particular local group. In our contemporary world of high-speed travel and far-flung families, the long history of human migrations continues, at an ever-increasing pace. Future mtDNA and Y chromosome hunters will have their work cut out for them if they try to retrace the steps of today's migrants.



  1. New Deal
04/09/1932

11. (Q) How much longer will this general depression last and when will we begin to see a definite improvement?
(A) In the Spring of '33 will be the real definite improvements. There will be periods, to be sure, of much better - and periods of 'all gone to pot!' - but the definite periods, as we find in the present, would be in the Spring of '33. (311-8)


    1. "AN OUTLINE FOR THE "NEW DEAL"," New York Times, March 19, 1933.



  1. 'record chamber' underneath the Sphinx
07/01/1932

17. (Q) What is the significance of the character of the figure of the Sphinx, mentioned above?
(A) In this particular period of Araaraart and of the priest (that began those understandings - and passed through those of the hell in the misinterpretation of same), there was even then the seeking through those channels that are today called archaeological research.

In those periods when the first change had come in the position of the land, there had been an egress of peoples - or THINGS, as would be called today - from the Atlantean land, when the Nile (of Nole, then) emptied into what is now the Atlantic Ocean, on the Congo end of the country. What is now as the Sahara was a fertile land, a city that was builded in the edge of the land, a city of those that worshipped the sun - for the use of its rays were used for supplying from the elements that which is required in the present to be grown through a season; or the abilities to use both those of introgression and retrogression - and mostly retrograded, as we are in the present. The beginnings of these mounds were as an interpretation of that which was crustating in the land. (See, most of the people had tails then!) In those beginnings these were left.

When there was the entrance of Arart and Araaraart, they begin to build upon those mounds which were discovered through research. With the storehouse, or record house (where the records are still to be uncovered), there is a chamber or passage from the right forepaw [see: of the Sphinx] to this entrance of the record chamber, or record tomb. This may not be entered without an understanding, for those that were left as guards may NOT be passed until after a period of their regeneration in the Mount, or the fifth root race begins.

In the building of the pyramid, and that which is now called the Mystery of Mysteries, this was intended to be a MEMORIAL - as would be termed today - to that counsellor who ruled or governed, or who acted in the capacity of the director in the MATERIAL things in the land. With the return of the priest (as it had been stopped), this was later - by Isis, the queen, or the daughter of Ra - turned so as to present to those peoples in that land the relationships of man and the animal or carnal world with those changes that fade or fall away in their various effect. These may be seen in a different manner presented in many of the various sphinxes, as called, in other portions of the land - as the lion with the man, the various forms of wing, or characterizations in their various developments. These were as presentations of those projections that had been handed down in their various developments of that which becomes man - as in the present. (5748-6)

10/29/1933

11. (Q) Give in detail what the sealed room contains.
(A) A record of Atlantis from the beginnings of those periods when the Spirit took form or began the encasements in that land, and the developments of the peoples throughout their sojourn, with the record of the first destruction and the changes that took place in the land, with the record of the SOJOURNINGS of the peoples to the varied activities in other lands, and a record of the meetings of all the nations or lands for the activities in the destructions that became necessary with the final destruction of Atlantis and the buildings of the pyramid of initiation, with who, what, where, would come the opening of the records that are as copies from the sunken Atlantis; for with the change it must rise (the temple) again.

This [see: the sealed room] in position lies, as the sun rises from the waters, the line of the shadow (or light) falls between the paws of the Sphinx, that was later set as the sentinel or guard, and which may not be entered from the connecting chambers from the Sphinx's paw (right paw) until the TIME has been fulfilled when the changes must be active in this sphere of man's experience.

Between, then, the Sphinx and the river. (378-16)


    1. Bill Cote, "The Mystery Of The Sphinx," 1:33:26, November 10 1993.



  1. Leonardo da Vinci painting, The Magdalene
08/31/1933

3. In giving a detailed account of the experience as Mary, the sister of Martha and Lazarus, indeed much might be given respecting the activities of the entity in that experience. For, as given in the Gospel account, this entity was then the Mary of Magdalene; or the courtesan that was active in the experiences both of those that were in the capacity of the Roman officers, Roman peoples, and those that were of the native lands and country.

4. When the body met first the Master, it was the woman brought before the council as taken in adultery; and the one whom the whole council or court at the time asked that, according to the law, the woman be stoned. [See 5749-9 on 10/21/37.]

5. With the cleansing of the body-mind, through the association and experience, the entity then joined again with those of the family from whom she had been separated in Bethany, and became then again of the household of those that dwelt there.

6. Hence the showing in the Gospel of the difference in attitude, in the manner of approach, with the various visits of the Master through the period.

7. The entity was the same to whom the Master first appeared upon the resurrection morn; the same to whom many of the apostles and leaders during that experience went for counsel, in the ways and manners that are spoken of in the various accounts that are kept in the present.

8. As to the experiences before meeting the Master, these were more of the worldly nature; wherein there was the giving of self in body, in the indulgencies of the period, such that there was brought for the body and those associated with same the activities that brought condemnation, as well as the pomp, the power, the splendor, when considered from that angle, in the experience of the entity through the period.

9. In the activities, then, these should be - as we find - more dwelt upon in the activity after the cleansing in the temple.

10. Ready for questions.

11. (Q) Is the account of Mary depicted in the book, "Under Pontius Pilate", a copy of which I hold in my hand, authentic? [10/14/77 GD's note: UNDER PONTIUS PILATE was written by William Schuyler and published in 1906 by Funk.]
(A) In the main, authentic.

12. (Q) Was the extraordinary reaction produced by reading this book caused by the soul-mind coming into the realization of the two being one?
(A) That which brought the realization of the activities, and the forces that continue to war within self.

13. (Q) Why is it not pointed out more clearly in the Gospels that they were one and the same?
(A) It could hardly be pointed out more clearly than it is, when the references are read as one!

14. (Q) Please describe the personal appearance of the body at that time.
(A) This is well drawn by da Vinci, as well as in that by Blum [Blaum?] [?] - The Magdalene. A body five feet four inches (5'4") in height, weight a hundred and twenty-one (121) pounds - in the general. Hair almost red. The eyes were blue. The features were those impelled both from the Grecian and Jewish ancestry. [See 295-8, Par. R5.] (295-8)


    1. "Mona Lisa may have a rival," Telegraph, September 22, 2005.
Mona Lisa may have a rival

Move over, Mona Lisa. If Carlo Pedretti’s hunch is right, the world may soon have another Leonardo da Vinci masterpiece to admire.

A stunningly beautiful painting called Mary Magdalene which the world-class art historian suspects may have been painted by Leonardo da Vinci together with one of his pupils will soon go on public view for the first time in more than half a century.

The painting, measuring 58 cm by 45 cm, was believed to have been painted in 1515, four years before the master died.

It goes on display in October in the Adriatic port of Ancona and depicts Magdalene bare-breasted, wearing a red robe and holding a transparent veil over her belly.

It has been attributed to Giampietrino, a Leonardo pupil whose work can be found in some of the world’s greatest museums, including Leningrad’s Hermitage and London’s National Gallery.

But Pedretti, director of the Armand Hammer Centre for Leonardo Studies at the University of California in Los Angeles, suspects it may be much more.

“Because of the very high quality, I am inclined to believe that it is much more than a supervision of the student by the master,” he said in a telephone interview from his part-time home in Tuscany.

“I can’t say for sure yet, but this is my position and I am prepared to follow up with the whole process of laboratory verification and the rest of it,” the 77-year-old professor said, speaking in English.

Pedretti, co-curator of the exhibition of works by Giampietrino and others, said the work “has the character of a Giampietrino painting but is far beyond his qualities”.

The painting has been in private collections for nearly all its recorded history in the past 100 years or so.

A black-and-white photo of it was taken in the 1920s in Vienna. It was last exhibited briefly in the US in 1949 and Pedretti recently tracked it down to a private collector in Switzerland.

Pedretti, who has devoted most of his life to studying Leonardo, is cautious but hopeful that his hunch will prove correct.

He wants the painting to undergo an infrared reflectogram, a technique for viewing the under drawings and various paint stages of a painting using cameras equipped with infrared-sensitive detectors.

Pedretti said if traces of sketches were found it would be “extremely important” because Leonardo sketches are very easy to identify.

“First of all, it still has to be examined in a laboratory. I want to see a reflectogram and other examinations. But one extraordinary thing is that it is painted on an intact wood panel, just like the Mona Lisa,” he said.

The exhibition is called “Leonardo ' Genius and Vision in the Marche Region”, after the area of Italy where it will be held and which is home to the city of Urbino, where Leonardo worked briefly in 1502.

Its co-sponsors include the Italian Culture Ministry and a Vatican foundation.

Leonardo is known to have collaborated with students to complete some of his works. For example, one copy of Virgin of the Rocks is believed to have been painted jointly by Leonardo and Ambrogio De Predis.

If the Magdalene painting turns out to be of Leonardo’s hand, even if only partially, it would be only one of a few by the master of a nude woman. Another is Leda and the Swan.

Pedretti said he had no personal agenda to suggest that Leonardo may have had a major role in the painting.

“I don’t think I need to draw attention to myself at my age. I’m just proposing this possibility in the service of scholarship,” he said.


    1. Phil Vinter, "The lost da Vinci: Is this painting found hanging on the wall of a Scottish farmhouse one of the master's works worth £100m?," Daily Mail, August 5, 2012.
The lost da Vinci: Is this painting found hanging on the wall of a Scottish farmhouse one of the master's works worth £100m?

For years it sat on a farmhouse wall gathering dust.

And when Fiona McLaren redecorated, she didn't even take the time to cover the apparently worthless painting in a protective sheet, so it got flicked in specks of paint.

However, in an astounding twist it has emerged that the picture is likely to have been the work of master artist Leonardo da Vinci and worth over £100million.

The striking portrait, which shows woman embracing a young child, was nearly assigned to the rubbish tip on several occasions, but facing financial difficulties Ms McLaren, 59, from Scotland decided to take the painting to an expert for a valuation.

Auctioneer Harry Robertson, the director of Sotheby's in Scotland, gasped when he saw the art 23ins by 28ins work which had hung on a landing and in a bedroom in London for decades, before being transferred to Scotland when Ms McLaren and her mother moved into a farmhouse

'I showed it to him [Mr Robertson] and he was staggered, speechless save for a sigh of exclamation,' said Ms McLaren, according to The People.

Mr Robertson took the work to London for further testing by specialists on old masters and next year the painting will be closely inspected by experts at the Hamilton Kerr Institute at the University of Cambridge, where it should be dated conclusively.

The work of art came into the possession of the McLaren family through Fiona's late father George, a doctor who had received it as a gift from a patient in the 1960s.

When George died in 1979, the painting transferred to her mother who gave it to her daughter as a 40th birthday present.

Da Vinci paintings normally fetch in exces of £100million and a string of art experts have now shown excitement in this particular work.

Former Antiques Roadshow presenter Sebastian Thewes, an ex-director of Christie's in Scotland said he believed that da Vinci, considered the greatest human mind who has ever lived, had a hand in the painting.

Other experts have stated that the painting is at the very least from the da Vinci school.

Professor Carlo Pedretti from the University of California said he thought it was by a Leonardo da Vinci pupil of a later generation, possibly the 16th century.

Ms McLaren said her father used to call the painting 'Madonna and Child with John the Baptist, but having spent a decade researching the history of the work, the nurse believes the painting is actually not the Virgin Mary with baby Jesus, but Mary Magdalene and her son.

She thinks the true meaning of the artwork may have been disguised for centuries because such a work would have been considered heretic by the Roman Catholic Church.

The Pope decreed the Virgin Mary should be illustrated in blue whereas Mary Magdalene had to be shown in red attire, as depicted in this painting.

Leonardo, who excelled at not only painting, but also mathematics, engineering, architecture, sculpture, music and science, was known to hide meanings in his works and the fact the woman in the picture is holding a carnation could be a symbol for marriage.

Florida University-based Michael E Abrams said the picture was 'brimming with sensuality' with the artist taking a tremendous risk of being burned at the stake for heresy after the Pope was re-established in Rome.

French expert Michel Fraisset said he thought the background was the mountain of St Victoire by the city of Aix-en-Provence.

A papal bull – an order from the pope attached to the back of the painting is another significant feature of the painting and has been confirmed as belonging to Pope Paul V who was head of the Catholic Church in the early 17th century.

Although much of the wording on the Papal Bull has now disappeared, Fiona says the word for Magdalene is visible.

Once it is sold Ms McLaren says she wants to give a percentage of the money to the charity the Caterina Peace Foundation to help children in care.

She hopes the painting will go to a museum so it can be enjoyed by people for many years to come.



  1. Climate Change [see: The Discovery of Global Warming]
01/19/1934

8. As to the changes physical again: The earth will be broken up in the western portion of America. The greater portion of Japan must go into the sea. The upper portion of Europe will be changed as in the twinkling of an eye. Land will appear off the east coast of America. There will be the upheavals in the Arctic and in the Antarctic that will make for the eruption of volcanos in the Torrid areas, and there will be shifting then of the poles - so that where there has been those of a frigid or the semi-tropical will become the more tropical, and moss and fern will grow. And these will begin in those periods in '58 to '98, when these will be proclaimed as the periods when His light will be seen again in the clouds. As to times, as to seasons, as to places, ALONE is it given to those who have named the name - and who bear the mark of those of His calling and His election in their bodies. To them it shall be given. (3976-15)


    1. "Climate Change 2001 - IPCC Third Assessment Report," Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2001.

Global temperature change, 1861-2000 and 1000-2000


    1. David Shukman, "Arctic to be 'ice-free in summer'," National Ocean Service, October 14, 2009.
Arctic to be 'ice-free in summer'

The Arctic Ocean could be largely ice-free and open to shipping during the summer in as little as ten years' time, a top polar specialist has said.

"It's like man is taking the lid off the northern part of the planet," said Professor Peter Wadhams, from the University of Cambridge.

Professor Wadhams has been studying the Arctic ice since the 1960s.

He was speaking in central London at the launch of the findings of the Catlin Arctic Survey.

The expedition trekked across 435km of ice earlier this year.

Led by explorer Pen Hadow, the team's measurements found that the ice-floes were on average 1.8m thick - typical of so-called "first year" ice formed during the past winter and most vulnerable to melting.

The survey route - to the north of Canada - had been expected to cross areas of older "multi-year" ice which is thicker and more resilient.

When the ridges of ice between floes are included, the expedition found an average thickness of 4.8m.

Professor Wadhams said: "The Catlin Arctic Survey data supports the new consensus view - based on seasonal variation of ice extent and thickness, changes in temperatures, winds and especially ice composition - that the Arctic will be ice-free in summer within about 20 years, and that much of the decrease will be happening within 10 years.

"That means you'll be able to treat the Arctic as if it were essentially an open sea in the summer and have transport across the Arctic Ocean."

According to Professor Wadhams, faster shipping and easier access to oil and gas reserves were among short-term benefits of the melting.

But in the longer-term, losing a permanent feature of the planet risked accelerated warming, changing patterns of circulation in the oceans and atmosphere, and having unknown effects on ecosystems through the acidification of waters.

Pen Hadow and his companions Ann Daniels and Martin Hartley endured ferocious weather - including a wind chill of minus 70 - delayed resupply flights and starvation rations during the expedition from 1 March to 7 May.

When I met them on the ice, as part of a BBC team that joined the pick-up flight, all three had lost weight and were evidently tired from the ordeal.

The expedition had been blighted by equipment failures. A pioneering radar system, designed to measure the ice while being dragged over the ice, broke down within days. Another device to measure the water beneath the ice never functioned at all.

A planet transformed

The technical breakdowns forced the team to rely on hand-drilling through the ice which slowed progress and meant the team's planned destination of the North Pole had to be abandoned.

Pen Hadow admitted that the expedition had not led to "a giant leap forward in understanding" but had been useful as an incremental step in the science of answering the key questions about the Arctic.

His view was backed by Professor Wadhams who said the expedition had provided information about the ice that was not available from satellites and that no submarines had been available to science at that time either.

Pen Hadow said he was shocked by the image of how "in my lifetime we're looking at changing how the planet looks from space."

He also described how polar explorers were having to change their methods from the days when sledges could be pulled by dogs over the ice.

"Dogs can swim but they can't tow a sledge through water which is what's needed now."

"Now we have to wear immersion suits and swim and we need sledges that can float. I can foresee needing sledges that are more like canoes that you also pull over the ice."


    1. Richard A. Lovett, "Giant Crack in Antarctica About to Spawn New York-Size Iceberg," National Geographic News, February 02, 2012.
Giant Crack in Antarctica About to Spawn New York-Size Iceberg

"This glacier is really important," adds mightily to sea level rise, experts say.

With a gargantuan crack slowly splitting it apart, Antarctica's fastest-melting glacier is about to lose a chunk of ice larger than all of New York City, scientists say.

The crevasse stretches 19 miles (30 kilometers) long and up to 260 feet (80 meters) wide, as shown in a picture taken by NASA's Terra satellite in October and featured this week as a NASA Image of the Day.

Snaking across the floating tongue of the Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica, the crack is expected to create an iceberg 350 square miles (907 square kilometers)—versus 303 square miles (785 square kilometers) for Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and the Bronx combined, according to NASA.

As for when the iceberg might shove off, "that is very difficult to predict," said oceanographer Eric Rignot of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, "but in the coming months for sure."

Glacier "Contributing Most to Sea Level"

Usually there's nothing extraordinary about a glacier calving, said glaciologist Ted Scambos of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) in Boulder, Colorado.

Glaciers that flow into the sea, like the Pine Island Glacier, go through a normal cycle in which the floating section grows, stresses mount, and an iceberg breaks off, Scambos said.

"That is nothing unusual in most cases."

But when the pattern deviates, glaciologists take notice. In this case, the crack is forming significantly farther "upstream" than has previously been the case. That "signifies that there are changes in the ice," he said.

When "that point of rifting starts to climb upstream, generally you see some acceleration of the glacier." That means that the ice will flow into the ocean at a faster rate, contributing even more to sea level rise.

Such an acceleration is of particular concern at the Pine Island Glacier, because, among Antarctic glaciers, it's "the one that's contributing the most to sea level rise."

In fact, he said, ice flows from that glacier alone account for a quarter to a third of Antarctica's total contribution to sea level rise.

"It's moving at about three kilometers [almost two miles] per year," Scambos said. And, he noted, "it's been accelerating quite a bit."

Cracking Glacier "Really Important"

As far as sea levels are concerned, changes in the Pine Island Glacier and other West Antarctic glaciers are far more important than shifts among the continent's other glaciers, such as East Antarctica's Mertz Glacier—despite Mertz's much publicized release of a Luxembourg-size iceberg in early 2010.

That's because the "Luxembourg" iceberg came from a glacial ice tongue that had just been "sitting there," said oceanographer Doug Martinson of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

By contrast, "West Antarctica has ice streams, of which Pine Island is one. Those are fast-flowing streams of ice," said Martinson, who specializes in polar oceans.

When ice breaks off the Pine Island Glacier, he said, more ice can flow in faster from the mountains above—ice that will eventually wind up contributing to sea level rise.

"This glacier," NSIDC's Scambos added, "is really important."



  1. Adolf Hitler
01/19/1934

12. (Q) What are the world changes to come this year physically?
(A) The earth will be broken up in many places. The early portion will see a change in the physical aspect of the west coast of America. There will be open waters appear in the northern portions of Greenland. There will be new lands seen off the Caribbean Sea, and DRY land will appear. There will be the falling away in India of much of the material suffering that has been brought on a troubled people. There will be the reduction of one risen to power in central Europe to naught. The young king son will soon reign [See Par. 13-A below]. In America in the political forces we see a re-stabilization of the powers of the peoples in their own hands, a breaking up of the rings, the cliques in many places. South America shall be shaken from the uppermost portion to the end, and in the Antarctic off of Tierra Del Fuego LAND, and a strait with rushing waters. [See 4/61 EARTH CHANGES booklet report, p. 30. Also see 5/64 A.R.E. issue of THE SEARCHLIGHT "Updating Earth Changes."]

13. (Q) To what country is the reference made regarding the young king?
(A) In Germany. (3976-15)


    1. Guido Enderis, "VON HINDENBURG DIES AT 86 AFTER A DAY UNCONSCIOUS; HITLER TAKES PRESIDENCY," New York Times, August 02, 1934.



  1. World War II
10/07/1935

11. As to the affairs of an international nature, these we find are in a condition of great anxiety on the part of many; not only as individuals but as to nations.

12. And the activities that have already begun have assumed such proportions that there is to be the attempt upon the part of groups to penalize, or to make for the associations of groups to carry on same.

13. This will make for the taking of sides, as it were, by various groups or countries or governments. This will be indicated by the Austrians, Germans, and later the Japanese joining in their influence; unseen, and gradually growing to those affairs where there must become, as it were, almost a direct opposition to that which has been the THEME of the Nazis (the Aryan). For these will gradually make for a growing of animosities.

14. And unless there is interference from what may be called by many the SUPERNATURAL forces and influences, that are activative in the affairs of nations and peoples, the whole WORLD - as it were - will be set on fire by the militaristic groups and those that are "for" power and expansion in such associations. (416-7)


    1. Edwin L. James, "HITLER IS VICTOR AGAIN AS NAZIS GRAB AUSTRIA," New York Times, March 13, 1938.

    1. Otto D. Tolischus, "HITLER GIVES WORD In a Proclamation He Accuses Warsaw of Appeal to Arms," New York Times, September 01, 1939.

    1. Birgit Görtz, "Austria debates its role in the Nazi era," Deutsche Welle, November 03, 2013.
Austria debates its role in the Nazi era

75 years after the so-called Anschluss, when Austria was unified with Nazi Germany, Austrians still debate their country’s responsibility. But there is a growing desire to close the chapter for good.

On March 11th, 1938, at 7:47 p.m, Austria's Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg held his last speech on public radio as head of government. He ended it with the words "God save Austria."

Adolf Hitler had blackmailed Austria: Either the Austrian government resigned, or German troops would invade the country. Austria's President Wilhelm Miklas and Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg knew that resistance was pointless.

Schuschnigg's speech caused an outbreak of panic. Just minutes after it ended, British journalist George Eric Rowe Gedye witnessed large crowds on the platforms at one of Vienna's main train stations. Thousands of Austrians were trying to catch the night express train to Prague that left at 11:15 the same night. "'Save yourselves if you can,' was the common reaction to the farewell address, but there was no reasonable chance of rescue any more." Trains and flights were full, and the roads were jammed. The smarter option was to walk towards the Czech border and try and cross it on foot. But there were only few physically strong enough to take the strain.

The following day, March 12 1938, marked the end of the Austrian state. At eight o'clock in the morning, the troops of the German Wehrmacht's Eighth Army marched into Austria. Just before 4 p.m. the same day, Adolf Hitler's car crossed the border near Braunau am Inn, the town where he was born in 1889. The population didn't put up any resistance - they cheered.

Voluntary, forced voluntary, or forced accession?

Since the end of the Second World War, historians, politicians and the public in Austria and abroad have debated the same questions: Was the "Anschluss" - the union of Austria and the German Reich - voluntary or forced? Were the Austrians victims or collaborators?

At the time, Ari Rath, a Vienna-born Jew, was 13 years old. He still vividly remembers March 12. "My brother and I went to see my grandmother. We wanted to make sure everything was OK. We weren't surprised to see swastika flags on the houses. But what shocked us was that Vienna's entire police force was equipped with swastika armbands. We knew that that must have been prepared beforehand." And it certainly was.

One month before the Anschluss, on February 12, Hitler had dictated an agreement to Austria's Chancellor Schuschnigg at a meeting on the Obersalzberg, a mountainside retreat on the border between Austria and Germany. The agreement stipulated that Hitler's close follower Arthur Seyss-Inquart was to become Austria's minister for domestic affairs, giving him control over the Austrian police. In addition, Hitler forced the Austrians to lift the existing ban on his party, the NSDAP, in their country. That cleared the way to prepare the Anschluss from below, because Austrian Nazis had long infiltrated Austria's executive and administrative bodies.

Cheering crowds in Vienna

One day after the Wehrmacht invaded Austria, on March 13, the Reichsgesetzblatt (the National Law Gazette) that was published in Berlin, published a new "law on the reunification of Austria with the German Reich," signed by the Führer and Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler. Two days later, Hitler made a public appearance on Vienna's central Heldenplatz (Heroes' Square) in front of a cheering crowd of 250,000. Hitler praised the German-Austrian unity of shared destiny, and the two countries' shared history and mission. He used the Nazi term "Ostmark," or eastern march (or border region), for the newly incorporated territory.

"From now on, the German Reich's oldest Ostmark will be the newest bastion of the German nation and the German Reich." The two countries' common enemy, Hitler said, was the Communist East. The last words of his speech were drowned by frenetic applause that lasted for minutes. "As Führer and Chancellor of the German nation and Reich I proclaim the entry of my birth country into the German Reich."

The sovereign Austrian state became the Ostmark of the German Reich through a plebiscite, rather than through parliamentary vote. On April 10th, 99.7 percent of eligible Austrian voters gave their support. This overwhelming result was achieved with the typical Nazi strategy, which was a combination of manipulation, propaganda, and terror. It's important to note, however, that Austrian patriotism was little developed after the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire in 1918. At the time, large parts of the Austrian population desired unity with the German Reich.

Genesis of the victim theory

Even before the war ended, the Allied Forces made investigations into Austria's role during Nazi times. In October 1943, the foreign ministers of the US, Great Britain and the USSR met in Moscow. They published the first so-called Moscow Declaration, which said "Austria [is] the first victim of Hitlerite aggression." This paragraph would later serve as the basis of the so-called "victim theory" and became one of the founding principles of state in post-war Austria.

The fact that the declaration did not end with that paragraph, however, was later often overlooked - whether deliberately or not. In their declaration, the Allies called on the Austrian population to rise up against the Nazi regime, and they held Austria liable for collaborating in the war with Nazi Germany. "It was an important lifeline for constructing Austrian identity after the war to push all responsibility and burden onto the Federal Republic of Germany so that Austria could develop a national identity of its own," says Oliver Rathkolb, a professor of contemporary history at Vienna University.

Growing out of the comfortable role of victims

That perspective has changed since the late 1970s. Austrian historians agree today that the Anschluss found broad support in the population at the time and that a large proportion of Austrians were collaborators and co-perpetrators, says Rathkolb. "Much has been written and said about the brutal excesses committed against Jews following the Anschluss. But what's changed is public perception of the Anschluss."

The political elite have changed their attitude - with the exception of the right-wing Freedom Party (FPÖ), as Rathkolb stresses. He expects the FPÖ to keep a low profile on the 75th anniversary of the Anschluss. In the past, FPÖ politicians have regularly made headlines with racist, homophobic and anti-Islam statements.

New generation – new approaches

Rathkolb says he's concerned about the results of recent surveys conducted in Austria and Germany: although people are critical of National Socialism and anti-Semitism, "in both countries, the youngest generations show a strong desire to close the chapter for good." He concludes that society needs a fresh debate about history every ten years, so that the next generation gets a fresh chance to deal with history. He says the 75th anniversary is a good opportunity to re-launch a public debate about Austria's role, with the goal of preventing the re-emergence of the Austria-as-victim myth.

Ari Rath is convinced that Austria will commemorate March 12 in an appropriate way in 2013. He has made peace with his home country that he left when he was 13 years old. "It took a long time before I was ready to take on Austrian citizenship again." But now, he says, he has "one foot in Vienna" again.



  1. Lusitania
07/03/1937

12. (Q) In what position does the wreck lie on the bottom and are the torpedo holes visible?
(A) Those are visible, and as indicated it [see: the torpedo hole] is upon the larboard [see: port] side; though the entrance of the torpedo was from the side upon which the ship lies [see: lying on its starboard side].

The explosions and the activity upon the starboard make for visibility. (1395-1)

07/03/1937

24. (Q) Did diver James Jarrat, on Oct, 26, 1935, reach the actual wreck of the Lusitania?
(A) Reached the actual wreck, but he approached from a mighty dangerous end! (1395-1)


    1. Robert D. Ballard, “Riddle of the Lusitania,” National Geographic, April 1994, 77.
She looked more like a junkyard than a luxury liner when we first saw the Lusitania last July. Plunging bow first into 295 feet of water, the 785-foot-long ship slammed into the bottom while her stern was still at the surface. The force of the impact crumpled the stem of her bow and cracked opened her hull amidships. After she crashed down on her starboard side, her decks collapsed, spilling debris onto the seafloor.


    1. Peter R. Limburg, Deep-Sea Detectives: Maritime Mysteries And Forensic Science (Toronto: ECW Press, 2004), 192-193.
The first person known to have explored the wreck was an English diver, Jim Jarratt, who went down in 1935. Jarrett used a conventional helmeted outfit (he made his dive years before Cousteau invented SCUBA); with limited mobility, vision, and bottom time, he concluded that the ship lay on her port side. He also thought he saw holes in the forward part of the hull that looked as if they had been caused by an internal explosion.
In the same year, there were reports that the British Navy was blasting the wreck, possibly to test depth bombs or perhaps to open it up and recover evidence. This blasting supposedly continued for years. In the process, much damage was done to the remains of the ship.
In 1953 [see: Edgar Cayce died on January 03, 1945], divers again visited the wreck and confirmed that it was lying on its starboard, not its port, side. This observation made sense since the torpedo had struck the ship on the starboard side. Then, in 1960, a young American diver named John Light claimed that he had dived on the Lusitania. His claim could not be confirmed, however, since there are over 7,000 confirmed wrecks in the area, and Light, who was SCUBA diving on ordinary air (a reckless venture at that depth), might well have been suffering from nitrogen narcosis and could easily have been confused. Light was also diving in a wet suit rather than a dry suit, and hypothermia could also have clouded his perceptions.



  1. Roosevelt
08/31/1940

28. (Q) Will Roosevelt be re-elected President?
(A) This has nothing to do with this body; but Roosevelt WILL control.


    1. Arthur Krock, "First Time in History That Third Term Is Granted President," New York Times, November 06, 1940.



  1. 'war will be brought to the United States'
08/31/1940

30. (Q) Will the U.S. go into war actively?
(A) Not much more than at present; that is, for the present - but the war will be brought to the United States.


    1. The Associated Press, "TOKYO ACTS FIRST Declaration Follows Air and Sea Attacks on U.S. and Britain," New York Times, December 08, 1941.

    1. Frank L. Kluckhohn, "Only One Negative Vote as President Calls to War and Victory," New York Times, December 09, 1941.



  1. Karst/Earthquake
08/13/1941

19. Portions of the now east coast of New York, or New York City itself, will in the main disappear. This will be another generation, though, here; while the southern portions of Carolina, Georgia - these will disappear. This will be much sooner.

20. The waters of the lakes will empty into the Gulf, rather than the waterway over which such discussions have been recently made. It would be well if the waterway were prepared, but not for that purpose for which it is at present being considered. (1152-11)


    1. Bret D. Tobin, David J. Weary, "Digital engineering aspects of Karst map: a GIS version of Davies, W.E., Simpson, J.H., Ohlmacher, G.C., Kirk, W.S., and Newton, E.G., 1984, Engineering aspects of Karst: U.S. Geological Survey, National Atlas of the United States of America, Scale 1:7,500,000," U.S. Geological Survey. 2004.

Digital engineering aspects of Karst map



    1. "National Seismic Hazard Maps," U.S. Geological Survey. 2014.

Simplified 2014 Hazard Map (PGA, 2% in 50 years)




  1. July Plot
12/18/1943

47. (Q) Is the prophecy still possible of fulfillment, of May, 1941, that war against Germany will end in the spring of '44?
(A) This will end in the spring of '44. [3/57 GD's note: The 1950 World Almanac indicates that Hitler was wounded in an attempted assassination July 20, 1944. It is possible that this planned assassination was seen. If it had gone through, war would have ended immediately - long before the invasion.] (257-254)


    1. Joseph Shaplen, "FUEHRER BRUISED IN BOMB ATTEMPT," New York Times, July 21, 1944.



  1. Hiroshima/Nagasaki
12/18/1943

48. (Q) When will the war with Japan end?
(A) It will be much later, but more sudden in its close. [First atomic bomb was dropped on Japan August 6, 1945, the second atomic bomb was dropped August 9, 1945. Japan surrendered August 14, 1945.] (257-254) (257-254)


    1. Sidney Shalett, "HIROSHIMA IS TARGET 'Impenetrable' Cloud of Dust Hides City After Single Bomb Strikes," New York Times, August 07, 1945.

    1. W. H. Lawreice, " 2D BIG AERIAL BLOW," New York Times, August 09, 1945.

    1. Arthur Krock, "PRESIDENT ANNOUNCING SURRENDER OF JAPAN," New York Times, August 15, 1945.



  1. China 'will be one day the cradle of Christianity'
06/22/1944

17. The sin of China? Yea, there is the quietude that will not be turned aside, saving itself by the slow growth. There has been a growth, a stream through the land in ages which asks to be left alone to be just satisfied with that within itself. It awoke one day and cut its hair off! And it began to think and to do something with its thinking! This, here, will be one day the cradle of Christianity, as applied in the lives of men. Yea, it is far off as man counts time, but only a day in the heart of God - for tomorrow China will awake. Let each and every soul as they come to those understandings, do something, then, in his or her own heart. [See 3976-29, Par. R3.] (3976-29)


    1. Tom Phillips, "China on course to become 'world's most Christian nation' within 15 years," Telegraph, April 19, 2014.
China on course to become 'world's most Christian nation' within 15 years

The number of Christians in Communist China is growing so steadily that it by 2030 it could have more churchgoers than America

It is said to be China's biggest church and on Easter Sunday thousands of worshippers will flock to this Asian mega-temple to pledge their allegiance – not to the Communist Party, but to the Cross.

The 5,000-capacity Liushi church, which boasts more than twice as many seats as Westminster Abbey and a 206ft crucifix that can be seen for miles around, opened last year with one theologian declaring it a "miracle that such a small town was able to build such a grand church".

The £8 million building is also one of the most visible symbols of Communist China's breakneck conversion as it evolves into one of the largest Christian congregations on earth.

"It is a wonderful thing to be a follower of Jesus Christ. It gives us great confidence," beamed Jin Hongxin, a 40-year-old visitor who was admiring the golden cross above Liushi's altar in the lead up to Holy Week.

"If everyone in China believed in Jesus then we would have no more need for police stations. There would be no more bad people and therefore no more crime," she added.

Officially, the People's Republic of China is an atheist country but that is changing fast as many of its 1.3 billion citizens seek meaning and spiritual comfort that neither communism nor capitalism seem to have supplied.

Christian congregations in particular have skyrocketed since churches began reopening when Chairman Mao's death in 1976 signalled the end of the Cultural Revolution.


Less than four decades later, some believe China is now poised to become not just the world's number one economy but also its most numerous Christian nation.

"By my calculations China is destined to become the largest Christian country in the world very soon," said Fenggang Yang, a professor of sociology at Purdue University and author of Religion in China: Survival and Revival under Communist Rule.

"It is going to be less than a generation. Not many people are prepared for this dramatic change."

China's Protestant community, which had just one million members in 1949, has already overtaken those of countries more commonly associated with an evangelical boom. In 2010 there were more than 58 million Protestants in China compared to 40 million in Brazil and 36 million in South Africa, according to the Pew Research Centre's Forum on Religion and Public Life.

Prof Yang, a leading expert on religion in China, believes that number will swell to around 160 million by 2025. That would likely put China ahead even of the United States, which had around 159 million Protestants in 2010 but whose congregations are in decline.

By 2030, China's total Christian population, including Catholics, would exceed 247 million, placing it above Mexico, Brazil and the United States as the largest Christian congregation in the world, he predicted.


"Mao thought he could eliminate religion. He thought he had accomplished this," Prof Yang said. "It's ironic – they didn't. They actually failed completely."

Like many Chinese churches, the church in the town of Liushi, 200 miles south of Shanghai in Zhejiang province, has had a turbulent history.

It was founded in 1886 after William Edward Soothill, a Yorkshire-born missionary and future Oxford University professor, began evangelising local communities.

But by the late 1950s, as the region was engulfed by Mao's violent anti-Christian campaigns, it was forced to close.

Liushi remained shut throughout the decade of the Cultural Revolution that began in 1966, as places of worship were destroyed across the country.

Since it reopened in 1978 its congregation has gone from strength to strength as part of China's officially sanctioned Christian church – along with thousands of others that have accepted Communist Party oversight in return for being allowed to worship.

Today it has 2,600 regular churchgoers and holds up to 70 baptisms each year, according to Shi Xiaoli, its 27-year-old preacher. The parish's revival reached a crescendo last year with the opening of its new 1,500ft mega-church, reputedly the biggest in mainland China.

"Our old church was small and hard to find," said Ms Shi. "There wasn't room in the old building for all the followers, especially at Christmas and at Easter. The new one is big and eye-catching."

The Liushi church is not alone. From Yunnan province in China's balmy southwest to Liaoning in its industrial northeast, congregations are booming and more Chinese are thought to attend Sunday services each week than do Christians across the whole of Europe.

A recent study found that online searches for the words "Christian Congregation" and "Jesus" far outnumbered those for "The Communist Party" and "Xi Jinping", China's president.

Among China's Protestants are also many millions who worship at illegal underground "house churches", which hold unsupervised services – often in people's homes – in an attempt to evade the prying eyes of the Communist Party.

Such churches are mostly behind China's embryonic missionary movement – a reversal of roles after the country was for centuries the target of foreign missionaries. Now it is starting to send its own missionaries abroad, notably into North Korea, in search of souls.

"We want to help and it is easier for us than for British, South Korean or American missionaries," said one underground church leader in north China who asked not to be named.

The new spread of Christianity has the Communist Party scratching its head.

"The child suddenly grew up and the parents don't know how to deal with the adult," the preacher, who is from China's illegal house-church movement, said.

Some officials argue that religious groups can provide social services the government cannot, while simultaneously helping reverse a growing moral crisis in a land where cash, not Communism, has now become king.

They appear to agree with David Cameron, the British prime minister, who said last week that Christianity could help boost Britain's "spiritual, physical and moral" state.

Ms Shi, Liushi's preacher, who is careful to describe her church as "patriotic", said: "We have two motivations: one is our gospel mission and the other is serving society. Christianity can also play a role in maintaining peace and stability in society. Without God, people can do as they please."

Yet others within China's leadership worry about how the religious landscape might shape its political future, and its possible impact on the Communist Party's grip on power, despite the clause in the country's 1982 constitution that guarantees citizens the right to engage in "normal religious activities".

As a result, a close watch is still kept on churchgoers, and preachers are routinely monitored to ensure their sermons do not diverge from what the Party considers acceptable.

In Liushi church a closed circuit television camera hangs from the ceiling, directly in front of the lectern.

"They want the pastor to preach in a Communist way. They want to train people to practice in a Communist way," said the house-church preacher, who said state churches often shunned potentially subversive sections of the Bible. The Old Testament book in which the exiled Daniel refuses to obey orders to worship the king rather than his own god is seen as "very dangerous", the preacher added.

Such fears may not be entirely unwarranted. Christians' growing power was on show earlier this month when thousands flocked to defend a church in Wenzhou, a city known as the "Jerusalem of the East", after government threats to demolish it. Faced with the congregation's very public show of resistance, officials appear to have backed away from their plans, negotiating a compromise with church leaders.

"They do not trust the church, but they have to tolerate or accept it because the growth is there," said the church leader. "The number of Christians is growing – they cannot fight it. They do not want the 70 million Christians to be their enemy."

The underground leader church leader said many government officials viewed religion as "a sickness" that needed curing, and Prof Yang agreed there was a potential threat.

The Communist Party was "still not sure if Christianity would become an opposition political force" and feared it could be used by "Western forces to overthrow the Communist political system", he said.

Churches were likely to face an increasingly "intense" struggle over coming decade as the Communist Party sought to stifle Christianity's rise, he predicted.

"There are people in the government who are trying to control the church. I think they are making the last attempt to do that."



Notes

  1. This paragraph is a composite of 5 readings
  1. (5750-1)
11/12/1933

23. (Q) In which pyramid or temple are the records mentioned in the readings given through this channel on Atlantis, in April, 1932? [[364] series]
(A) As given, that temple was destroyed at the time there was the last destruction in Atlantis.

Yet, as time draws nigh when changes are to come about, there may be the opening of those three places where the records are one, to those that are the initiates in the knowledge of the One God:

The temple by Iltar will then rise again. Also there will be the opening of the temple or hall of records in Egypt, and those records that were put into the heart of the Atlantean land may also be found there - that have been kept, for those that are of that group.

The RECORDS are ONE. (5750-1)


  1. (877-26)
05/23/1938

23. The use of these influences by the Sons of Belial brought, then, the first of the upheavals; or the turning of the etheric rays' influence FROM the Sun - as used by the Sons of the Law of One - into the facet for the activities of same - produced what we would call a volcanic upheaval; and the separating of the land into SEVERAL islands - five in number.

24. Poseidia, the place or the settlement of that particular sojourning of the entity - Deui - at the time, then became ONE of these islands. (877-26)


  1. (364-6)
02/17/1932

9. (Q) What were the principal islands called at the time of the final destruction?
(A) Poseidia and Aryan [?], and Og [?]. (364-6)


  1. (958-3)
06/28/1940

43. This brought consternation to the entity, and also those influences the application or use of which brought destruction to the land. And Poseidia will be among the first portions of Atlantis to rise again. Expect it in sixty-eight and sixty-nine ('68 and '69); not so far away! [See 958-3, Par. R5.] (958-3)


  1. (364-3)
02/16/1932

3. The position as the continent Atlantis occupied, is that as between the Gulf of Mexico on the one hand - and the Mediterranean upon the other. Evidences of this lost civilization are to be found in the Pyrenees and Morocco on the one hand, British Honduras, Yucatan and America upon the other. There are some protruding portions within this that must have at one time or another been a portion of this great continent. The British West Indies or the Bahamas, and a portion of same that may be seen in the present - if the geological survey would be made in some of these - especially, or notably, in Bimini and in the Gulf Stream through this vicinity, these may be even yet determined. (364-3)




References

  1. Paul J. Crutzen and Veerabhadran Ramanathan, "The Ascent of Atmospheric Sciences," Science 290 (Issue 5490) (2000): 299-304.
1969
Jacob Bjerknes links the Southern Oscillation and El Niño.

An Edgar Casē Study

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